The Political Economy of Gender
Compared to their male counterparts, females the world over typically achieve lower levels of pay, status, and representation. But the patterns of gender gaps in wages and power across countries and across sectors within countries point to systematic and empirically testable propositions about the supply and demand of labor and the bargaining consequences of remuneration. Time constraints on females, on account of socially mandated family work, hinder their advancement in endeavors that put a premium on availability and continuous career investment.
Hutchinson, Annabelle, Elizabeth K. McGuire, Frances McCall Rosenbluth, and Hikaru Yamagishi. "The Political Economy of Gender." Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. 30. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.013.616